Sunday, May 24, 2009


The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom's Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by benjamin Bloom, at the University of Chicago.

Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive Like other taxonomies, Bloom's is hierarchical; meaning that learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels (Orlich, et al. 2004). A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education.

Most references to the Bloom's Taxonomy only notice the Cognitive domain. There is also a so far less referred, revised version of the Taxonomy, published in 2001 under the name of "A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing."


Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:
  • Receiving
    The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur.
  • Responding
    The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way.
  • Valuing
    The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information.
  • Organizing
    The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.
  • Characterizing
    The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic.


Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills. Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies.


Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and "thinking through" a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

  • Knowledge
    Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers. Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology . Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures
    Questions like: What are the health benefits of eating apples?

  • Comprehension
    Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas. Its includes Translation, Interpretation &
    Questions like: Compare the health benefits of eating apples vs. oranges.
  • Application
    Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way
    Questions like: Which kinds of apples are best for baking a pie, and why?
  • Analysis
    Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations. It involves Analysis of elements,
    Analysis of relationships, Analysis of organizational principles
    Questions like: List four ways of serving foods made with apples and explain which ones have the highest health benefits. Provide references to support your statements.
  • Synthesis
    Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. It includes the Production of a unique communication, Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations, Derivation of a set of abstract relations
    Questions like: Convert an "unhealthy" recipe for apple pie to a "healthy" recipe by replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients you chose vs. the original ones.
  • Evaluation
    Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. It involves the Judgments in terms of internal evidence nd Judgments in terms of external criteria.
    Questions like: Do you feel that serving apple pie for an after school snack for children is healthy? Why or why not?


  1. Sir...rumit jugak ekk nak mengajar. Kat mananak dapat sources semua info ni sir?

  2. Dear Vicky....banyak sumber sumbernya...yang i post ini ambil dari wikepedia....banyak lagi valid sources...books are the best sources. Wikepidea ni usually tak valid sangat sebab takder mentioned who is the writer. Everybody can post their opinion and own aslo freely to add yours. Refer buku ok. Kat KPT kan banyak buku? Anything..just ask me ok. I'll be there for you

  3. just curious..i had been conduct one program with a teacher and students.When i'm asking about the students and social problems.Some teacher blame students,that students nowdays is quite 'sopan' then same answer when asking the students.
    However,for me its about ourselves, responsibility and bless from God.
    if we do a job with ikhlas insyallah everything goes smoothly.=)
    rasa sangat berkenang dengan cikgu yg tak nak ajar kanak2 yg lemah/slow dalam subjek tertentu.Bukan ke cikgu kerja mengajar?jd kenapa harus memilih2 pelajar?jika memilih maka seharusnya gaji yg dapat harus jua dipilih2 kerana kita memilih2 tanggungjawab kita...huhuhu...
    just as friendly reminder to all a teacher and become teacher or dream to be a teacher...
    kalau cikgu rajin 10 sekali=anak murid mungkin rajin 1 sekali(2 yg nampak dengan cikgu2 saya terutama masa sek rendah)..
    namun,kalau cikgu 1 rajin n 9kali malas/buat tak taw=anak murid ?????